The module of writing techniques (Techniques de rédaction universitaire) is a fundamental unit of teaching that can be taught  in a relation to the module of research methodology. 

 This lesson mainly targets the importance of mastering the formal academic and scientific writing of English due to the fact that the students need to demostrate their ability to finish and polish a well-written research work; particularly their graduation dissertation. Therefore, it is crucial that the teacher introduces the characteristics of an acdemic style as well as the techniques that assist them in their realisation of their written performances.

Module: Writing Techniques 

Level: MA1

     By the end of the lesson, the students will able to practice the technique of paraphrasing that will enable them how to reformulate  authors' ideas and acknowledge them.  

I/ Reflective questions:

   a-Do you find it difficult to write in your own words? Why?

II- Paraphrasing: is when a piece of a published work is written in your own words without changing the original meaning. It is usually the same length as the original one, but different in sentence structure and words. As long as you acknowledge your source it is NOT plagiarism1.   

III- The purposes of paraphrasing

     a-It is more effective because the essay flows when you use your own words.

     b- It helps resolve the problem of over-quoting.

     c-The process of paraphrasing assists you in gaining a fuller understanding of the original text.

the students can review the technique in the booklet provided previously

The United States is the first and great powerful country in the world and its decision-making process

does not only affect the internal politics of the United States, but its foreign policy and thus, all the world

as it has the great influence in guiding and directing almost all of what is happening in the world

according to what fits and guarantees its interests . Hence, knowing the U.S. institutions that are

involved in the decision-making process helps us to discuss and analyze premises and justifications

important in the American policy decisions.